Prevalence and Predictors of Placental Malaria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women in Nigeria

06 Jan 2017
E O Izuka, E O Ugwu, S N Obi, B C Ozumba, T U Nwagha, C E Obiora-Izuka

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection.

Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV-positive women in Nigeria.

Materials and methods: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively.

Results: The Prevalence of placenta malaria (68.6%) and anemia (66.7%) in HIV-positive women were significantly higher than the prevalence of placental malaria (35.3%) and anemia (44.1%) in HIV-negative control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001 respectively). The employment status was the only sociodemographic factor significantly associated with the development of placental malaria in HIV-positive women (odds ratio: 21.60; 95% confidence interval: 7.1-66.2; P< 0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of placental malaria is very high among HIV-positive women in Nigeria. Scaling up free distribution of insecticide treated nets in the short term and employment opportunities of HIV-positive women, in the long run, may reduce the prevalence of placental malaria in our population.